Advanced concepts of energy transformation in metabolism by Shay Carlton

By Shay Carlton

This ebook bargains with complex suggestions of power Transformation in Metabolism Biochemistry. summary: This ebook bargains with complex innovations of power Transformation in Metabolism Biochemistry

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The composition is like that of a bacterial cell membrane. Both mitochondria and plastids contain DNA that is different from that of the cell nucleus and that is similar to that of bacteria (in being circular in shape and in its size). DNA sequence analysis and phylogenetic estimates suggest that nuclear DNA contains genes that probably came from plastids. These organelles' ribosomes are like those found in bacteria (70s). Proteins of organelle origin, like those of bacteria, use N-formylmethionine as the initiating amino acid.

Bacteria use ubiquinone (the same quinone that mitochondria use) and related quinones such as menaquinone. Proton pumps A proton pump is any process that creates a proton gradient across a membrane. Protons can be physically moved across a membrane; this is seen in mitochondrial Complexes I and IV. The same effect can be produced by moving electrons in the opposite direction. The result is the disappearance of a proton from the cytoplasm and the appearance of a proton in the periplasm. Mitochondrial Complex III uses this second type of proton pump, which is mediated by a quinone (the Q cycle).

This process is known as proton leak or mitochondrial uncoupling and is due to the facilitated diffusion of protons into the matrix. The process results in the unharnessed potential energy of the proton electrochemical gradient being released as heat. The process is mediated by a proton channel called thermogenin, or UCP1. Thermogenin is a 33kDa protein first discovered in 1973. Thermogenin is primarily found in brown adipose tissue, or brown fat, and is responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis.

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